Let’s talk about the Keto diet and intermittent fasting, cleansing detox diets and how Ketosis can be part of your healthy weight management program.
Keto diets have become a worldwide trend as a way to lose weight. They generally involve a high fat and protein intake, lots of fatty meat and low carb eating. However, is this really healthy, the best way of triggering Ketosis and could intermittent fasting be even better?
Scientific research shows that plant-based diets and intermittent fasting are actually a lot better for your health, so how about combining this with a Keto diet?
The great thing with intermittent fasting is that you don’t have to restrict yourself to an extremely low carbohydrate diet. In fact, you can consume a wide range of fruits and vegetables which in itself is a much healthier diet than common ‘Keto Diet’ plans, which often result in eating a lot of meat. Too much meat has been shown to have many negative health effects.
On this page, we will investigate fasting, ketosis and how best to combine these into a healthy sustainable Keto diet.
What Is A Keto Diet?
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. (7)
A very interesting phenomenon within our body is cycle and rhythm. Everything operates in a pattern of ebb and flow. Our breathing, pulse, sleep and wake cycle, hormones, moods and energy levels. Interestingly, this also applies to our digestive system, nutrient levels, and eating habits.
Think about it, how much better does a cold glass of water taste after you’ve been out in the hot sun or had a hot bath, and food is so much more delicious when you haven’t eaten for a while. This is because your body is like a sponge ready to absorb and utilize those nutrients immediately when you have reached the point of true hunger.
Training your body to survive between meals, and utilizing stored energy (glycogen and fats) is extremely good for your health and this is what happens during Ketosis.
Let’s find out why.
The process Of Ketosis Explained
Hunger and satiety are two important mechanisms involved in body weight regulation. Yes, we can regulate food intake at will, but there are inbuilt systems that regulate food intake and energy expenditure.
This control network is spread around the brain, gets signals from fat cells, the gut, and from blood and nerves and is influenced by nutrients, hormones and other signaling molecules.
Ketone bodies are the major source of energy in the periods of fasting and/or carbohydrate shortage and might play a role in food intake control. (6)
Ketosis is normally induced through fasting or through a drastically reduced carbohydrate diet (below 20 g per day). In these conditions, glucose reserves become insufficient for cellular energy needs, and for the supply of glucose to the central nervous system (CNS) which includes the brain.
It is well-known that the CNS cannot use fats as an energy source because fats cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. This is why the brain normally uses only glucose (simple sugar). After 3–4 days without carbohydrate intake or fasting the CNS must find alternative energy sources.
These alternative energy sources are the ketones bodies: acetoacetate (AcAc), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and acetone and the process of their formation occurring in the liver is called Ketogenesis. (6)
The Liver is the central storehouse for excess sugar (as glycogen) and excess fats. It is also the central hub for controlling your metabolism so it makes perfect sense that mobilizing these sugar and fat energy stores from your Liver will help with weight control.
Hence the terms Ketosis or Keto diet.
Vegetarian Keto Diet Foods
This can be achieved by either fasting or an extremely low carb diet. Today we are exploring fasting, specifically intermittent daily fasting as an alternative to the low carb approach. This can easily be followed by vegetarians also.
Vegetarians can focus on lots of leafy greens, low GI vegetables like Pulses, Legumes, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Eggplant, Zucchini, Mushrooms, and use plenty of Avocado, Olive oil, Coconut oil. Snacks can be Nuts, Carrots, Apples, plus they can use extra pea protein powder, high-fat milk, yogurt, and cream.
What Is Fasting?
Traditionally fasting is defined as abstaining from all or some kinds of food or drink, especially as a religious observance. “the ministry instructed people to fast”.
The technical definition of fasting is: be deprived of all or some kinds of food, especially for medical or experimental reasons.
We are using the latter in this article.
I don’t recommend extreme fasting unless you are very experienced, well researched or otherwise healthy. In saying that, a good fast on selected super-foods can give intense and rapid health benefits. You will find such super-food detox recipes on our detox recipe page.
Recently there have been studies conducted on the effects of fasting, so I thought it worth sharing some of these with you.
Part of our Herbal DETOX Program is the detox diet which can involve significant changes in eating habits. Essentially the diet is a fast on pure fruits and mostly raw vegetables, but we will get to this later.
Background Of Fasting
Fasting has been practiced for millennia but only recent studies have shed light on its role in adaptive cellular responses that reduce oxidative damage and inflammation, optimize energy, metabolism and bolster cellular protection. In microorganisms, chronic fasting extends longevity in part by reprogramming metabolic and stress resistance pathways.
In rodents, intermittent or periodic fasting protects against diabetes, cancers, heart disease and neuro-degeneration, while in humans it helps reduce obesity, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Fasting has the potential to delay aging and help prevent and treat diseases while minimizing the side effects caused by chronic bad dietary habits. (1)
Triggering Ketosis also has many benefits as you can see in the diagram below. Combining these two approaches will, therefore, give you the greatest result. Let’s explore intermittent fasting a little further.
Intermittent fasting involves not eating any calorie-containing food for a period of several hours, usually between 12 and 16 hours and only eating within an 8-12 hour period. This encourages the body to use stored energy (glycogen and fats) which triggers Ketosis, weight loss, and many other benefits.
Types of intermittent fasting include:
- Complete Alternate Day Fasting – These regimens involve alternating fasting days (no energy-containing foods or beverages consumed) with eating days (foods and beverages consumed ad-libitum).
- Modified Fasting Regimens – Modified regimens allow for the consumption of 20–25% of energy needs on scheduled fasting days. This regimen is the basis for the popular 5:2 diet, which involves severe energy restriction for 2 non-consecutive days a week and ad-libitum eating the other 5 days.
- Time-Restricted Feeding – These protocols allow individuals to consume ad-libitum energy intake within specific windows, which induces fasting periods on a routine basis. Studies of <3 meals per day are indirect examinations of a prolonged daily or nightly fasting periods.
- Religious Fasting – A wide variety of fasting regimens are undertaken for religious or spiritual purposes.
- Ramadan Fasting – A fast from dawn to sunset during the holy months of Ramadan. The most common dietary practice is to consume one large meal after sunset and one lighter meal before dawn. Therefore the feast and fast periods of Ramadan are approximately 12 hours in length.
- Other Religious Fasts – Latter Day Saints followers routinely abstain from food and drink for extended periods of time. Some Seventh-day Adventists consume their last of 2 daily meals in the afternoon, resulting in an extended nighttime fasting interval that may be biologically important.
The main type if intermittent fasting I will talk about here is Time-Restricted Feeding.
Intermittent Fasting Health Benefits
In twelve studies with mice, time-restricted feeding was associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, TGs, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF-α; as well as improvements in insulin sensitivity. (5)
Another study among 29 normal weight men (two weeks per study condition), a prescribed nighttime fasting interval of ≥11 hours resulted in a significant weight change difference between the intervention (−0.4 kg) and control (+0.6 kg) conditions, which translates into 1.3% weight loss. (5)
Another cross-over study compared the effect of consuming one afternoon meal per day for 8 weeks and reported 4.1% weight loss in comparison to a low-calorie diet consumed as three meals per day. One meal per day was also associated with reductions in fasting glucose, and improvements in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. While self-reported hunger was higher in the morning for those consuming 1 meal per day, this fasting regimen was considered acceptable because there were no meaningful changes in tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, or confusion. (5)
When subjects with mild cognitive impairment were maintained for 1 month on a low glycemic diet, they exhibited improved delayed visual memory, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Aβ metabolism and brain bioenergetics.
Time restricted Intermittent fasting for periods of up to 12 hours has been shown to induce beneficial stress-related changes in brain chemistry encouraging better synaptic function. Intermittent metabolic switching, repeating cycles of a metabolic challenge that induces Ketosis (fasting) followed by a recovery period (eating, resting and sleeping), may optimize brain function and resilience throughout life. (7)
See this short video which explains how this has been proven.
Fasting And Ketosis
Intermittent fasting is known to induce a temporary state of Ketosis, where the body begins to burn stored fats and sugars that would otherwise sit dormant and potentially build up in storage in the body tissues and organs. This can have a very positive effect on our health.
Remember this from earlier?
“The great thing with intermittent fasting is that you don’t have to restrict yourself to an extremely low carbohydrate diet, and in fact, you can consume a wide range of fruits and vegetables which in itself is a much healthier diet than common Keto diet plans, which involve a lot of meat.”
Fasting has also been shown in human trials to assist in the following conditions:
Serum markers of oxidative damage and inflammation, as well as clinical symptoms, are reduced over a period of 2–4 weeks in asthma patients maintained on an alternate day fasting diet (1)
Similarly, when on a 2 days/week fasting diet overweight women at risk for breast cancer exhibited reduced oxidative stress and inflammation (1)
Elderly men exhibited reductions in body weight and body fat and improved mood (1)
Fasting for 3 or more days causes a 30% or more decrease in circulating insulin and glucose, as well as rapid decline in the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the major growth factor in mammals, which together with insulin is associated with accelerated aging and cancer (1)
Fasting has the potential for applications in both cancer prevention and treatment. Although no human data are available on the effect of cancer prevention, the effect on reducing, insulin and glucose levels, and increasing anti-inflammatory and Ketone body levels could generate a protective environment that reduces DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Thus, fasting may protect from cancer by reducing cellular and DNA damage but also by enhancing the death of pre-cancerous cells. (1)
In a preliminary study of 10 subjects with a variety of malignancies, the combination of chemotherapy with fasting resulted in a decrease in a range of self-reported common side effects caused by chemotherapy compared to the same subjects receiving chemotherapy while on a standard diet. The effect of fasting on chemotherapy toxicity and cancer progression is now being tested in clinical trials in both Europe and the US (1)
A Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight out of nine studies. (4)
An average of 13 days of water only fasting resulted in the achievement of a systolic blood pressure (BP) below 120 in 82% of subjects with borderline hypertension with a mean 20 mm Hg reduction in BP. BP remained significantly lower compared to baseline even after subjects resumed the normal diet for an average of 6 days.
Fasting and metabolic syndrome
Periodic fasting can reverse multiple features of the metabolic syndrome in humans: it enhances insulin sensitivity, stimulates lipolysis and reduces blood pressure. Body fat and blood pressure were reduced and glucose metabolism improved in obese subjects in response to an alternate day modified fast. Overweight subjects maintained for 6 months on a twice-weekly intermitting fasting in which they consumed only 500–600 calories on the fasting days, lost abdominal fat, displayed improved insulin sensitivity and reduced blood pressure (1)
Additional effects of fasting in human cells that can be considered as potentially ‘anti-aging’ are the inhibition of the mTOR pathway, stimulation of autophagy and ketogenesis (1)
Reduction of caloric intake without malnutrition is one of the most consistent anti–aging experimental interventions. Studies on both non-human and human primates showed that caloric restriction extands lifespan. Scientists found that 2 biomarkers of longevity (fasting insulin level and body temperature) and DNA damage were decreased by prolonged calorie restriction (6 months) in humans, although protein carbonyl concentrations were not change from baseline. Other various mechanisms are invoked by researchers to explain the antiagieng effect of caloric restriction: reduced lipid peroxidation, increased efficiency of oxidative damage repair, enhanced antioxidant defence, decreased mitochondrial free radical generation rate.
The Garbage Catastrophe theory & Anti-ageing
Increasing evidence suggests an important role of oxidant-induced damage in the progress of senescent changes, providing support for the free radical theory of aging proposed by Harman in 1956. However, considering that biological organisms continuously renew their structures, it is not clear why oxidative damage should accumulate with age. No strong evidence has been provided in favor of the concept of aging as an accumulation of synthetic errors (e.g. Orgel’s ‘error-catastrophe’ theory and the somatic mutation theory). Rather, we believe that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged, relatively indigestible material, the accumulation of which further hinders cellular catabolic and anabolic functions. (12)
Despite increasing evidence implicating molecular damage by oxygen-derived free radicals in ageing it remains unclear why oxidatively damaged structures accumulate in the presence of efficient renewing mechanisms, which are responsible for a continuous degradation and re-synthesis of cellular components. The most plausible explanation for the known progressive accumulation of oxidatively damaged material, mainly occurring in long-lived postmitotic cells such as cardiac myocytes and neurons, is that the removal of damaged structures by recycling systems, including lysosomes, proteasomes and cytosolic proteases, is inherently imperfect. (11)
This explanation of age-related accumulation of damaged structures seems more reasonable than emphasizing a role of erroneous synthesis of biomolecules as was suggested in the error catastrophe and somatic mutation theories of ageing. These theories per se could not explain many manifestations of ageing. Indeed, abnormally synthesized structures would not accumulate and cause any harm as long as they were reasonably well removed. Oxidatively modified structures that accumulate within ageing postmitotic cells include aberrant proteins, lipofuscin, and other damaged macromolecules, and defective mitochondria. (11)
Because all these structures are functionally inefficient or completely worthless, they can well be considered as biological ‘‘garbage’’ or ‘‘waste’’ material. Although the importance of biological ‘‘waste’’ accumulation in the progress of ageing has been pointed out earlier, this idea has attracted little attention, most probably due to lack of knowledge regarding the nature of ‘‘waste’’ products and their possible harmful effects. The accumulation of ‘‘waste’’ material is harmful not only because it occupies a certain part of the cells’ interior, apparently interfering with intracellular transport, signaling, and metabolic processes, but also due to its toxic effects. In particular, there is extensive evidence for the toxicity of protein oxidation products, and it was found that damaged mitochondria of senescent houseflies generate increased amounts of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, lipofuscin deposition within cultured cells increased their susceptibility to oxidant-induced apoptosis (cell death), while its accumulation in cultured T-lymphocytes made them progressively intolerant to activation. Most importantly, because heavy lipofuscin loading of lysosomes appears to suppress autophagy and normal turnover of biomolecules, the accumulation of ‘‘garbage’’ would advance with age, inevitably leading to cell death. (11)
Essentially this cellular garbage would lead to what is called senescent cells. These are cells that are unable to divide and begin to age and die. Cellular senescence is a phenomenon characterized by the cessation of cell division. In their groundbreaking experiments during the early 1960s, Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead found that normal human fetal fibroblasts in culture reach a maximum of approximately 50 cell population doublings before becoming senescent. This process is known as “replicative senescence”, or the Hayflick limit. Hayflick’s discovery of mortal cells paved the path for the discovery and understanding of cellular aging molecular pathways. Cellular senescence can be initiated by a wide variety of stress-inducing factors. These stress factors include both environmental and internal damaging events, abnormal cellular growth, oxidative stress, autophagy factors, among many other things. The physiological importance for cell senescence has been attributed to prevention of carcinogenesis, and more recently, aging, development, and tissue repair. (13)
The importance of this Garbage Catastrophe theory can be seen in the following study on prolonged fasting, which shows how the cells clean up this toxic metabolic waste during a fast.
Studies have shown that prolonged fasting (PF) in mice, promotes the self-renewal of intestinal stem cells, muscle stem cells, nerve regeneration, preserves the long-term regenerative capacity of blood cells, and prevents the decline of blood cells during aging.
The physiological changes caused by PF are much more pronounced than those caused by calorie restriction or fasting lasting 24 hours or less in part because of the requirement to fully switch to a fat and ketone bodies-based catabolism after glycogen reserves are depleted. (8)
The results of this study also indicate that cycles of an extreme dietary intervention represent a powerful means to modulate key regulators of cellular protection and tissue regeneration but also provide a potential therapy to reverse or alleviate the immunosuppression or immunosenescence caused by chemotherapy treatment and ageing, respectively, and possibly by a variety of diseases affecting the hematopoietic and immune systems and other systems and organs. (8)
Figure: Our cells have different specialized compartments. Lysosomes constitute one such compartment and contain enzymes for digestion of cellular contents. A new type of vesicle called autophagosome was observed within the cell. As the autophagosome forms, it engulfs cellular contents, such as damaged proteins and organelles. Finally, it fuses with the lysosome, where the contents are degraded into smaller constituents. This process provides the cell with nutrients and building blocks for renewal.
Cellular self-cleansing during fasting
Thanks to Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi and others following in his footsteps, we now know that a process of self-digestion which takes place inside cells (called autophagy) during periods of fasting stress, controls important physiological functions where cellular components are broken down and recycled.
Autophagy can rapidly provide fuel for energy and building blocks for renewal of cellular components, and is therefore essential for the cellular response to starvation and other types of stress.
After infection, autophagy can eliminate invading intracellular bacteria and viruses. Perhaps that’s why we lose our appetite when sick? Cells also use autophagy to eliminate damaged proteins and organelles, a quality control mechanism that is critical for counteracting the negative consequences of aging.
Disrupted autophagy has been linked to Parkinson’s disease, type 2 diabetes and other disorders that appear in the elderly. Mutations in autophagy genes can cause genetic disease. Disturbances in the autophagic machinery have also been linked to cancer. Intense research is now ongoing to develop drugs that can target autophagy in various diseases. (9)
Dr Paavo Airola
One of my favorite books is “How to Get Well” by Dr. Paavo Airola. On Page 218 he says this. Quote “I can truthfully say after studying fasting for 30 years with some of the greatest specialists in the world (Dr. Are Waerland, Dr. Ragnar Berg, Dr Otto Buchinger, Jr) and evaluating their results as well as my own experience with hundreds of patients – that fasting is not only the most effective healing method known to man but also the safest” (2)
Dr Richard Anderson
Cleanse and purify yourself. This book outlines the practices of cleansing and ridding the body of parasites. A very interesting and informative read.
Based on the existing evidence from animal and human studies described, we conclude that there is great potential for lifestyles that incorporate periodic fasting during adult life to promote optimal health and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, particularly for those who are overweight and sedentary. (1)
Animal studies have documented robust and replicable effects of fasting on health indicators including greater insulin sensitivity and reduced levels of blood pressure, body fat, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, atherogenic lipids, and inflammation. (1)
Fasting regimens can ameliorate disease processes and improve functional outcome in animal models of disorders that include myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. One general mechanism of action of fasting is that it triggers adaptive cellular stress responses, which result in an enhanced ability to cope with more severe stress and counteract disease processes. (1)
In addition, by protecting cells from DNA damage, suppressing cell growth and enhancing apoptosis of damaged cells, fasting could retard and/or prevent the formation and growth of cancers. (1)
One of the best ways to complete a fast is alongside the Ultimate Herbal Detox Program. It allows you the time, space and commitment to follow through. The diet can be adjusted to suit personal requirements and personal guidance can be provided online by email and Live Chat.
Unless very experienced I would not recommend fasting in the traditional sense of the word, which is complete abstinence from food for more than 24 hours at one time. I would, however, recommend the technical/medical form of fasting which involves restriction. Have a look at our recipes page and choose from the “special diet” or “Herbal Program” drop-down menu and you will see specific foods on which you can fast.
By fasting on specific foods you can give your body a therapeutic dose of nutrients which can help your metabolic balance and general health.
To get the best results, try eating within only a fixed 8 hour period each day. I suggest eating between 11am-7pm and only drinking water before or after those times.
You can use intermittent fasting very successfully with any of our Detox and Slimming programs. Visit the shop Now
Many Blessing of health
Brett Elliott ®
(1) Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3946160/
(2) How to Get Well: Handbook of Natural Healing ISBN 0-932090-03-6
(3) Cleanse and Purify Yourself https://openlibrary.org/publishers/distributed_by_Health_Freedom_Resources
(4) Roles of Caloric Restriction, Ketogenic Diet and Intermittent Fasting during Initiation, Progression and Metastasis of Cancer in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263749/
(5) INTERMITTENT FASTING AND HUMAN METABOLIC HEALTH. PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516560/
(6) Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship. Pubmed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313585/
(7) Intermittent metabolic switching, neuroplasticity and brain health. PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5913738/
(8) Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression. https://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(14)00151-9
(9) The Nobel Prize, Press Release. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2016/press-release/
(10) Can ageing be slowed? Hormetic and redox perspectives. PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227150/
(11) Testing the “garbage” accumulation theory of ageing: mitotic activity protects cells from death induced by inhibition of autophagy. PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15834662
(12) Garbage catastrophe theory of aging: imperfect removal of oxidative damage? PUBMED https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11333111
(13) Proteostasis, oxidative stress and aging. Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231716304694